Basic Speech -- Steve Strickler

Mid-Term Study Guide

1. According to your textbook, the three main goals of public speaking are

A. amusing, entertaining, and persuading.

B. educating, informing, and entertaining.

C. informing, educating, and persuading.

D. informing, persuading, and entertaining.

E. persuading, convincing, and amusing.

2. Many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include

A. organizing your thoughts logically.

B. tailoring your message to your audience.

C. adapting to listener feedback.

D. all of the above.

E. b and c only.

3. According to your textbook, rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it into

A. controlled anxiety.

B. visualized adrenaline.

C. professional stage fright.

D. positive nervousness.

E. confident apprehension.

4. Which of the following aspects of public speaking is least likely to help strengthen your skills as a critical thinker?

A. researching your speech

B. outlining and organizing your speech

C. testing the logic of your arguments

D. practicing the delivery of your speech

E. assessing the validity of your evidence

5.    As you listen to a speech about campus crime, you relate the speaker's ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience. According to your textbook, you are filtering the speech through your own

A. psychological screen.

B. cognitive field.

C. frame of reference.

D. social perspective.

E. personal vision.

6. As you present your speech, you notice that many of your listeners have interested looks on their faces and are nodding their heads in agreement with your ideas. According to your textbook, these reactions by your listeners are called

A. interference.

B. cognitive cues.

C. feedback.

D. audience cues.

E.    indicators.

7. Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else is termed the

A. channel.

B. code.

C. feedback.

D. message.

E. source.

8. Concern by a listener about an upcoming job interview, the lack of air conditioning, or a mosquito bite are all examples of ____________________________________in the speech communication process.

A. feedback

B. avoidance

C. blockage

D. interference

E. divergence

9. What, according to your textbook, is the term for anything that impedes the communication of a message?

A. divergence

B. blockage

C. intrusion

D. avoidance

E. interference

10. The means by which a message is communicated is termed the

A. channel.

B. stimulus.

C. occasion.

D. catalyst.

E. setting.

11. In the midst of a speech about volcanoes, a speaker notices quizzical expressions on the faces of her listeners. In response, she says1 "Let me explain that point again to make sure it's clear." When this happens, the speaker is

A. building her credibility.

B. adapting to feedback.

C. compensating for the situation.

D. interpreting the audience's frame of reference.

E. adjusting the channel.

12. The tendency to see the beliefs, values, and customs of one's own culture or group as "right" or "natural" is called

A. ethnicity.

B. egocentrism.

C. ethnocentrism.

D. exclusivity.

E. essentialism.

13. Renee is a U.S. college student who was asked to speak at an end-of-the-year banquet sponsored by the International Student Association. When Renee suggested in her speech that all students should behave like people in the United States, she was reflecting

A. effective audience analysis.

B. a sensitivity to cultural diversity.

C. the environmental dictates of the situation.

D. an ethnocentric point of view.

E. her listeners' frame of reference.

14. According to your textbook, the branch of philosophy that deals with human issues of right and wrong is termed

A. morality.

B. rationalism.

C. ethics.

D. legality.

E. existentialism.

15. As a public speaker, you face ethical issues

A. when selecting the topic for your speech.

B. when researching your speech.

C. when organizing your speech.

D. a and b only.

E. all of the above.

16. Which of the following are included in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking?

A. Make sure your goals are ethically sound, stay within your time limits, and practice your speech delivery.

B. Be honest in what you say, be fully prepared for each speech, and make sure your goals are ethically sound.

C. Avoid global plagiarism, use quotations rather than paraphrases, and put your ethical principals into practice.

D. Be fully prepared for each speech, avoid name-calling, and stay within your time limits.

E. Establish your credibility, be honest in what you say, and put your ethical principles into practice.

17. As explained in your textbook, public speakers have an ethical obligation to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language because such language

A. demeans the dignity of the groups or individuals being attacked.

B. violates current standards of political correctness on college campuses.

C. undermines the right of all groups in the U.S. to express their ideas.

D. all of the above.

E. a and c only.

18. According to your textbook, ____________________________ plagiarism occurs when a speaker takes a speech entirely from a single source and passes it off as her or his own.

A. incremental

B. global

C. valid

D. patchwork

E. scientific

19. Tanya went to the beach instead of staying in town and working on her speech. When she realized how soon the speech was due, she asked a friend who had already taken public speaking to loan her an old outline, which she used verbatim for her class speech. Which of the following statements best describes Tanya's actions?

A. Tanya should have planned better, but she isn't guilty of plagiarism.

B. Tanya is guilty of global plagiarism.

C. Tanya is guilty of patchwork plagiarism.

D. Tanya is ethical if she cites the friend whose speech she used.

E. Tanya is guilty of incremental plagiarism.

20. Jerome found several excellent sources for his informative speech. He pulled key information from them, blended those ideas into his own perspective, and cited his sources when he presented the speech. Which of the following statements best describes this situation?

A. Jerome is ethical because he cited his sources and used them to develop his own slant on the topic.

B. Jerome is guilty of incremental plagiarism because he used quotations and paraphrases from other people in his speech.

C. Jerome is ethical because he did not copy his speech from a single source.

D. Jerome is guilty of patchwork plagiarism because he used ideas from several different sources in his speech.

E. Jerome is guilty of global plagiarism because he did not develop his speech entirely from his own knowledge and experience.

 

21. Ryan Tompkins located three excellent sources for his persuasive speech. He copied long sections from each source word for word, strung them together with a few transitions, and mentioned the sources of his information in passing. Which of the following statements best describes Ryan's situation?

A. Ryan is ethical because he did research for his speech.

B. Ryan is guilty of global plagiarism.

C. Ryan is guilty of patchwork plagiarism.

D. Ryan is ethical because he mentioned the sources of his information.

E. Ryan is guilty of incremental plagiarism.

22. According to your textbook, ____________________________ plagiarism occurs when a speaker copies word for word from two or three sources.

A. global

B. incremental

C. patchwork

D.    scientific

E.    valid

23. According to your textbook, ____________________________ plagiarism occurs when the speech as a whole is ethical but. the speaker fails to give credit for particular quotations and paraphrases.

A. incidental

B. informative

C. inferential

D. invalid

E. incremental

24. The three guidelines for ethical listening discussed in your textbook are

A. listen attentively, take accurate notes, and avoid prejudging the speaker.

B. support free speech, avoid name-calling, and listen attentively.

C. listen attentively, avoid prejudging the speaker, and support free speech.

D. take accurate notes, support free speech, and avoid name-calling.

E. avoid stereotyping the speaker, support free speech, and take accurate notes.

25. Which of the following is out of place in a speech to inform?

A. advocating

B. explaining

C. reporting

D. demonstrating

E. telling

26. When the general purpose of your speech is to ____________________, you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer.

A. inform

B. convince

C. entertain

D. persuade

E. convert

27. When the general purpose of your speech is to ____________________ you act primarily as an advocate.

A. persuade

B. entertain

C. demonstrate

D. commemorate

E. inform

28. "Greeting cards for all year long" is a poorly phrased specific purpose for a speech because it is

A. too technical for a classroom speech.

B. written as a sentence rather than a declarative phrase.

C. expressed in figurative language.

D. written as a fragment rather than a full infinitive phrase.

E. written as a statement rather than a question.

29. According to your textbook, what is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?

A. phrasing the general purpose

B. researching for speech materials

C. formulating the specific purpose

D. brainstorming for a central idea

E. selecting the residual message

30. Identify the flaw in the following specific purpose statement for a classroom speech: "To inform my audience about gold."

A. It's too general.

B. It's too shallow.

C. It's too informative.

D. It's too remote..

E. It's too impersonal.

31. "To inform my audience about the three basic steps in preventive medicine" is an example of a

A. main point.

B. specific purpose.

C. thesis statement.

D. central idea.

E. general purpose.

32. "The laser is a highly versatile instrument with important uses in medicine, industry, and art" is an example of a

A. specific purpose.

B. central idea.

C. transition.

D. general thesis.

E. topic statement.

33. "The three main methods of harvesting trees in professional logging are selective cutting, clear cutting, and row thinning" is an example of a

A. specific purpose.

B. transition.

C. general purpose.

E.    signpost

F.    central idea

34. Chang thinks he'd like to give an informative speech for class on what it's like to be an international student on a U.S. college campus. His specific purpose is "To persuade my audience to be more accepting of international students." His central idea is "An international student's accent, use of English, and cultural customs should be accepted rather than criticized." Has Chang made any mistakes in this process?

A. No. Chang has covered all the bases for an informative speech.

B. Yes. Chang's specific purpose contains too much figurative language.

C. Yes. Chang's central idea contains two or more unrelated ideas.

D. No. Chang's specific purpose is too technical for a classroom speech.

E. Yes. Chang's specific purpose is not suitable for an informative speech.

35. Orawan plans to give an informative speech about her home country of Thailand. Her specific purpose is "To inform my audience about the interaction of ancient traditions and modern technology in Thai society." Her central idea is "Thailand: Customs and Computers." Has Orawan made any mistakes in this process?

A. No. Orawan is off to a good start with her informative speech.

B. Yes. Orawan's specific purpose does not meet the assignment.

C. Yes. Orawan's specific purpose statement is too trivial.

D. Yes. Orawan's central idea is not written as a complete sentence.

E. Yes. Orawan's central idea contains the word "and."

36. The primary purpose of speechmaking is

A. to gain a desired response from listeners.

B. to learn more about the speech topic.

C. to gain experience as a speaker.

D. to try out new ideas with an audience.

E. to display the speaker's knowledge.

37. Audience analysis is an important factor in which of the following?

A. selecting a topic

B. organizing the speech

C. choosing supporting materials

D. all of the above

E. a and c only

38. The fact that audiences are egocentric means that

A. listeners believe their cultural group is superior to all other groups.

B. listeners are concerned above all with how a speech will affect them.

C. listeners will interpret the speech through the speaker's frame of reference.

D. all of the above.

E. a and b only.

39. One of the ways speakers analyze audiences is by looking at traits such as age, gender, religion1 group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background. According to your textbook, what is this called?

A. demographic audience analysis

B. psychological audience analysis

C. background audience analysis

D. situational audience analysis

E. descriptive audience analysis

40. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor in situational audience analysis?

A. the audience's cultural background

B. the audience's religious beliefs

C. the audience's group membership

D. the audience's gender

E. the audience's attitude toward the topic

41. As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more

A. formal.

B. flexible.

C. extemporaneous.

D. punctual.

E. informal.

42. According to your textbook, what are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a speech topic?

A. gender, knowledge, and opinions

B. interest, background, and age

C. size, occasion, and group membership

D. knowledge, interest, and attitude

E. background, situation, and gender

43. The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they

A. enhance the credibility of the questionnaire.

B. get below the surface of respondents' beliefs.

C. produce clear, unambiguous answers.

D. give respondents maximum leeway in answering.

B. require that respondents give truthful answers.

44. When making up an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use ____________________questions to get at the strength of a respondent's attitudes or feelings.

A. scale

B. fixed-alternative

C. leading

D. open-ended

B. interview

45. A questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n)

A. inductive question.

B. open-ended question.

C. leading question.

D. scale question.

E. informal question.

46. If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn the strength of your listeners' attitudes for or against animal research, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?

A. demographic question

B. open-ended question

C. leading questi6n

D. scale question

E. fixed-alternative question

47. According to your textbook1 what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech?

A. It is difficult to organize supporting materials if there are too many main points.

B. There is usually not enough time to develop more than two to five main points.

C. It is difficult to maintain parallel wording if there are too many main points.

D. A speech is hard to deliver extemporaneously with more than five main points.

E. It is difficult for the audience to keep track of too many main points.

48. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience how to build a home entertainment center"?

A. thematic

B. informative

C. problem-solution

D. chronological

E. structural

49. Which organizational pattern would be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the major steps in setting up a home aquarium"?

A. chronological

B. causal

C. problem-solution

D. informative

E. Monroe's motivated sequence

50. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the major geographical regions of Mexico?"

A. causal

B. chronological

C. topical

D. problem-solution

E. spatial

51. Which organizational pattern is reflected in a speech with the following the main points?

I. Soda lime glass is used in almost all ordinary glass products.
II. Lead crystal glass is used mostly for luxury glass products.
III. Heat resistant glass is used for cooking and scientific products.

A. causal

B. informative

C. chronological

D. topical

E. descriptive

52. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the three major kinds of fairy tales"?

A. analytical

B. topical

C. causal

D. spatial

E. chronological

53. Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing ________________________speeches.

A. acceptance

B. persuasive

C. after-dinner

D. commemorative

E. informative

54. All of the following are basic objectives of a speech introduction except

A. establish credibility and goodwill.

B. support your main points.

C. reveal the topic of the speech.

D. preview the body of the speech.

E. get the audience's attention and interest.

55. The conclusion of a speech is an appropriate time to

A. establish goodwill with the audience.

B. add supporting materials you could not work into the body.

C. reinforce commitment to the central idea.

D. apologize for any mistakes you may have made during the speech.

E. all of the above.

56. Referring back to your introduction in the conclusion of your speech is recommended as a way to

A. secure the audience's attention.

B. reinforce your credibility as a speaker.

C. move the audience to action.

D. give the speech psychological unity.

E. develop a dissolve ending.

57. An appeal to action is most appropriate in the conclusion of a(n) ______________________ speech.

A. informative

B. after-dinner

C. acceptance

D. commemorative

E. persuasive

58. The main points in a preparation outline are

A. identified by Roman numerals.

B. identified by capital letters.

C. located farther to the right than subpoints.

D. identified by Arabic numbers.

E. written in phrases, not full sentences.

59. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?

A. Wolves.

B. Did you know that all domestic dogs are descended from the wolf?

C. The ancestry of the domestic dog can be directly traced to the wolf.

D. The place of the wolf in the ancestry of the domestic dog.

E. Wolves and the domestic dog.

60. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?

A. Computer-generated graphics as special effects.

B. Many movie special effects are created with computer-generated graphics.

C. How are special effects created with computer-generated graphics?

D. The use of computer-generated graphics to create special effects in movies.

E. Computer-generated graphics.

61. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?

A. Causes.

B. Migraine headaches and their causes.

C. Causes of migraine headaches.

D. There are three major causes of migraine headaches.

E. Why people get migraine headaches.

62. Subpoints in a preparation outline are

A. indicated by R6man numerals.

B. indicated by Arabic numbers.

C. indicated by capital letters.

D. indicated in the same manner as sub-subpoints.

E. indicated in the same manner as main points.

63. According to your textbook, a speaking outline

A. includes the final bibliography.

B. states the specific purpose at the start of the outline.

C. contains delivery cues for the speaker.

D. all of the above.

E. a and b only.

64. According to your textbook, the _______________________ speaker delivers a speech with little or no immediate preparation.

A. colloquial

B. extemporaneous

C. conversational

D. impromptu

E. declamatory

65. Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of extemporaneous delivery?

A. It requires only a minimal amount of gesturing by the speaker.

B. It reduces the likelihood of a speaker making vocalized pauses.

C. It improves a speaker's ability to articulate difficult words correctly.

D. It requires little or no preparation before the speech is delivered.

E. It allows greater spontaneity than does speaking from a manuscript.

66. A speech that is fully prepared in advance but that is delivered from a brief set of notes or a speaking outline is called a(n) ___________________________speech.

A. extemporaneous

B. declamatory

C. impromptu

D. manuscript

E. vocalized

67. The relative highness or lowness of sounds produced by the human voice is called

A. rate.

B. pitch.

C. tone.

D. quality.

E. volume.

68. Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice are called

A. phonemes.

B. polytones.

C. enunciations.

D. inflections.

E. accents.

69. According to your textbook, "uh," "er," "um" and similar expressions in a public speech are referred to as

A. vocal fillers.

B. signposts.

C. intonations.

D. vocalized pauses.

E. inflections.

70. According to your textbook, saying "dunno" instead of "don't know" is an error in

A. accent.

B. articulation.

C. vocalization.

D. intonation.

E. emphasis.

71. According to your textbook, saying "pas-ghetti" instead of "spaghetti" is an error in

A. articulation.

B. description.

C. intonation.

D. pronunciation.

E. inflection.

72. According to your textbook, when people in one region of the country say "warter," while people in another region of the country say "water," the difference is a matter of

A. inflection.

B. verbalization.

C. dialect.

D. enunciation.

E. intonation

            73. What does your textbook say about speech dialects?

A. Most languages have dialects.

B. Dialects are usually based on regional or ethnic speech patterns.

C. No dialect is inherently better or worse than any other dialect.

D. all of the above.

E. a and b only.

74. To be used effectively as visual aids, photographs should be

A. supplemented with drawings.

B. in color1 not black and white.

C. larger than ordinary enlargements

D.    passed among the audience.

E.    explained with a chart.

75. If you were discussing statistical trends in a speech, what kind of visual aid would probably work best to clarify the trends for listeners?

A. a chart

B. a map

C. a diagram

D. a graph

E. a model

76. When using visual aids in a speech, you should

A. display visual aids only while discussing them.

B. maintain eye contact with listeners when showing visual aids.

C. avoid passing visual aids among the audience.

D. all of the above.

E. a and c only.

77. When using visual aids in a speech, you should

A. display visual aids only while discussing them.

B. draw graphs and charts on the chalkboard.

C. pass aids among the audience at the start of the speech.

D. not worry about maintaining eye contact with the audience.

E. display visual aids to the left of the lectern.

78. Which of the following are instances of informative speaking?

A. an ambassador urging changes in international adoption laws

B. a social worker explaining adoption laws to potential parents

C. a scientist convincing colleagues to change their research focus

D. all of the above

E. b and c only

79. Which of the following are instances of informative speaking?

A. a business manager reporting on next year's budget

B. a pastor urging parishioners to give to a building fund

C. a teacher lecturing about methods of speech organization

D. all of the above

E. a and c only

80. A ________________________ is a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product.

A. function

B. project

C. demonstration

D. process

E. custom

81. "To inform my audience how to make genuine French croissants" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about

A. an object.

B. a process.

C. a function.

D. an event.

E. a concept.

82. "To inform my audience how to build a stereo cabinet" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about

A. an operation.

B. a function.

C. an event.

D. a concept.

E. a process.

83. Speeches about ________________________ are often more complex than other types of informative speeches.

A. objects

B. events

C. processes

D. functions

E. concepts

84. If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience about the three different types of hot air balloons," you would probably organize your speech in _______________________ order.

A. topical

B. chronological

C. spatial

D. comparative

E. causal

85. If your specific purpose were "To inform my audience of the major steps in an effective job interview," you would probably organize your speech in ______________ order.

A. comparative

B. spatial

C. chronological

D. causal

E. illustrative

86. If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience about the different layers of the atmosphere," you would probably organize your speech in __________________________ order.

A. topical

B. chronological

C. spatial

D. comparative

E. causal

87. Informative speeches about processes are usually arranged in __________________ order.

A. causal or spatial

B. topical or spatial

C. causal or topical

D. spatial or chronological

E. chronological or topical

88. Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in __________________ order.

A. chronological

B. topical

C. spatial

D. causal

E. illustrative

89. When giving an informative speech, you should take special care

A. to state your ideas in abstract terms.

B. to avoid using hypothetical examples.

C. to establish goodwill with the audience in the introduction.

D. not to overestimate the audience's knowledge of the topic.

E. to avoid speaking about complex subjects.

90. When giving an informative speech, you should take special care to

A. translate technical information into everyday language.

B. state your ideas in abstract terms.

C. establish goodwill with the audience in your introduction.

D. avoid speaking about complex topics.

E. prepare your introduction before the body of your speech.

91. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for relating the subject directly to your audience in an informative speech?

A. speak in personal terms such as "you" and "your"

B. take care to establish your credibility in the introduction

C. devote an equal amount of time to each main point

D. all of the above

E. a and b only

92. What does your textbook mean when it recommends that you "personalize your ideas" in an informative speech?

A. Bring information to life by using examples and illustrations.

B. Use dramatic statistics for a personal effect.

C. Use true-to-life examples rather than hypothetical examples.

D. Use slang and jargon to give the speech a personal tone.

E. Avoid concrete language because it makes ideas vague and impersonal.